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William Dollente Dar, Ph. The Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture or AMIA supported the development of new planning tools that consider the challenges of climate change, to assist Filipino farmers and fisher folks, and all other stakeholders, including the private sector, towards climate-ready crop management systems, while ensuring science-based interventions by the government. This initiative is also intended to ensure food security and reduce poverty incidence in the agriculture and fisheries sector and the whole country. The color-coded map identifies the crops that are most suitable in agricultural parcels, and overlays soil properties, elevation, rainfall pattern, temperature and more importantly, the projected climate-induced multi-hazards.
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These pests and pathogens not only reduce the quantity but also spoil the quality of the produce to a considerable extent. About crop losses due to the pests and diseases, legendary wheat pathologist, E. Stakman said, 'Weeds, insect-pests and plant diseases reduce the potential agricultural production in the U.
The potential food that has been aborted, spoiled or damaged would be enough to feed at least 75 million human beings. Indeed, the magnitude of losses caused by various pests and diseases to our crops is frightening.
The situation in most of the developing world may still be worse. All out efforts are, therefore, required to atleast reduce these losses through proper management of crops and through pests and disease management. Plant quarantine may, therefore, be defined as 'Rules and regulations promulgated by governments to regulate the introduction of plants, planting materials, plant products, soil, living organisms, etc.
The Ireland famine of was the result of an almost total failure of the potato crop due to the introduction of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans from Central America. Introduction of powdery mildew Uncinula necator , Phylloxera and the downy mildew Plasmopara viticola in quick succession about the middle of 19th century from America, virtually annihilated the grape vine industry of France.
The chestnut blight Endothia parasitica was introduced into the US on the nursery stocks imported from the Orient aboutWithin 25 years, the American chestnut was almost exterminated as a forest tree causing an estimated loss of million US dollars.
In Sri Lanka, coffee was replaced by tea as a plantation crop because of the widespread epiphytotics of coffee leaf rust Hemileia vastatrix inAlso, about 20, hectares of coconut plantation was devastated by the introduced coconut leaf minor Promecotheca cumingi during the late s.
In India also, several pests and diseases got introduced from time to time, some of which, like late blight of potato, banana bunchy top, bacterial blight and streak diseases of paddy, have since become widespread. Some others like golden nematode and wart disease of potato and downy mildew of onion are still localized in certain parts of the country. Plant quarantine can provide such safeguards. These measures are of particular importance and relevance to countries like India whose economy is largely based on agriculture.
According to Mathys , 'Government quarantine offers services which are beyond the capabilities of individual beneficiaries or that are difficult to obtain in some otherway at a lesser cost'. However, such endeavours could succeed only with the active support of all-the administrators, general public, farmers, scientists, communication media, customs and others.
Complementary role of plant quarantine Plant genetic stocks are a global resource meant for the welfare of humanity. Plant quarantine services are charged with the responsibility of preventing entry of hazardous pests, pathogens and weeds, but to deny entry to the valuable genetic resources would be against national interest.
These activities are meant to help agricultural development and they are complementary to each other. Plant quarantine officials must strive to provide adequate safeguards to allow smooth flow of germplasm resources in a healthy state. They should also try to ensure that the germplasm, when received in quarantine station, is processed promptly and that the delays in release, if any, are purely due to biological considerations alone.
At the same time, circumvention of plant quarantine must be avoided at all cost even if it means delay in release or rejection of certain materials based on biological consideration. The two should work in unison as members of a single team.
Together they should decide the type, quantity and source of the material, and also the required quarantine safeguards. The plant quarantine officials should conduct research on developing sensitive and reliable methods of detection and salvaging treatments, or find alternatives to permit introduction of even high risk genera, if introduction of such materials is in the national interest.
For quarantine purposes, techniques should be sensitive enough to detect even trace infections. Similarly, planting material also may be introduced in a variety of forms, i. Many a times, more than one technique would have to be used.
Generalized tests A very widely used method is the inspection of dry seed with the naked eye or under the low power of microscope.
Examination of dry seed under UV or NUV light may reveal infections of certain fungi and bacteria through emission of fluorescence of different colours. Examination of seed washings may reveal surface contamination by rusts, smuts, downy mildews and a large number of other fungi. Most commonly used incubation methods for the detection of fungi are the common moist blotter and agar tests wherein seeds are incubated on these media for a specific length of time generally about a week at a suitable temperature under alternating light and dark cycles.
These two media reveal a wide range of internally seed-borne fungal and some bacterial pathogens in a wide variety of crops. Seedling symptom test and the growout test are quite versatile and reveal the symptoms produced by any category of plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria and viruses.
Growout test is the simplest of the tests extensively used for the detection of viruses. However, some viruses may be carried symptomlessly in the plant and, therefore, it should be used in combination with other tests like indexing on indicator test plants and serology.
Specialized tests Insects X-ray radiography has been used very successfully all over the world for the detection of hidden infestation with no apparent sign of infestation on the seed surface of insects, particularly seed infesting chalcids and bruchids. Seed transparency test boiling the seeds in lactophenol to make them transparent may also be used for the detection of hidden infestation and extraction of the insects for identification.
X-ray radiography is also very effective in salvaging infested seed lots. Nematodes For the detection of seed-borne nematodes, seeds are soaked in water for about 24 hours.
This makes the nematodes active, which then come out of the seed into the water, or the seeds may be teased out with the help of forceps and a needle and examined for detection of nematodes under a stereo microscope. In rooted plants, the accompanying soil and plant debris may similarly be soaked in water and nematodes may be extracted for identification using nematological sieves or tissue paper. Fungi , bacteria and viruses Serological tests are very effective for the detection and identification of viruses and bacterial pathogens and are being used in various plant quarantine stations with great success.
Phage-plague technique is still more sensitive for bacterial pathogens as even strains of bacteria can be identified. Indicator test plants are also very helpful as they may reveal pathogenic races within a species of a fungus, bacterium and specific strains within a virus. Modifications of the generalized incubation tests agar and blotter tests have also been used for the detection of specific plant pathogens.
Deep-freezing blotter test and 2,4-D blotter test are very efficient for detection of black-leg pathogen Phoma lingam in crucifer crops. Potato-dextrose-oxgall agar is useful for the detection of Septoria nodorum in wheat while PCNB agar is a selective medium for detection of Fusarium species in cereals.
In the case of vegetative propagules, laboratory methods may suffice for the detection of insects and mites, nematodes, majority of fungi and certain bacteria. Such an effort on the part of quarantine officials would help to restore a positive image to plant quarantine.
However, it may be kept in mind that treatments, which only reduce the inoculum, may be acceptable for general agricultural practices, but they are not acceptable in plant quarantine. Fool-proof eradicative treatments are required to be employed before release of the planting material from quarantine.
Fumigation Fumigation of the material under atmospheric or under reduced pressure has been found acceptable as a quarantine treatment against insects and mites. Heat treatment Hot water treatment or hot air treatment are also used in quarantine for eradication of insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses. However, in most cases, margin of safety is very narrow and, therefore, the temperature should be very accurately controlled. Some recommended hot water treatments Kahn, are: 1.
Hot water seed treatment has also been reported to eradicate certain bacterial pathogens like black-rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. Chemical treatments Chemicals may be applied as dust, slurry, spray or as dip. It should be ensured that dosage of chemical should be enough to eradicate the inoculum but should not kill the host and the chemical should not be hazardous to personnel handling the treated seed.
Treatment should be given on arrival and only after ascertaining the health status of the material. Seeds treated at origin are not only difficult to examine but are hazardous to inspect also. Heavily treated seed, which makes inspection difficult, should be denied entry Neergaard, a. Tissue culture Tissue culture as a safeguard in quarantine has been advocated by KahnAll insects, mites, nematodes and most fungi can be eliminated.
Symptoms on young seedlings, and growth of the organisms on the agar medium, if any, may be visible through the transparent culture tubes, and these could be discarded. Tissue culture in combination with thermotherapy and chemotherapy is an excellent safeguard from quarantine angle. However, certain systemically infecting pathogens like rusts, downy mildews, bacteria, viruses, viroids and MLOs, may still get transported. Such risk analysis provides sound biological basis to decide quarantine policies.
The attitude towards 'entry status' of a material may be liberal or conservative depending on the risks involved in its introduction. If risks are low, quarantine would be liberal in permitting the entry. However, if risks are very high, the material may be denied entry.
Whether an introduced pest could establish, spread and become serious, depends on three factors viz. However, the host-pathogen-environment interactions are very complex and it is not always easy to understand them. As such, many a times, our predictions about risks involved and quarantine importance of a pest may go wrong.
Any pest risk analysis should take into account the benefits that are likely to accrue from the introduction of the planting material concerned and also the costs of quarantine inspection, treatment including detention in the post-entry quarantine facility and the cost of eradication, should an exotic pest gets established. Quarantine regulations Plant quarantine regulations are promulgated by the national and the state governments to prevent the introduction and spread of harmful pests and pathogens.
Plant quarantine will be justified only when the pest has no natural means of spread and when they are based on biological considerations only, i. In general, risks are more with the introduction of vegetative propagules than with true seed. Again, risks are far greater with pathogens like viruses, downy mildews, smuts and many bacteria carried inside the seed without any external symptoms.
When vegetative propagules are introduced, rooted plants, and other underground plant parts like rhizomes, suckers, runners, etc. Based on these factors, plant quarantine regulates the introductions as follows: 1.
Post-entry quarantine: The risk is very high but adequate safeguards in the form of post-entry isolation growing facilities are available.
Restricted: Pest risk is not high and import permit is required stipulating conditions for entry, inspection and treatment. Unrestricted: Import permit is not required, and material may enter without restriction. While formulating quarantine regulations, local conditions like crop spectrum and environmental conditions are also to be considered.
Plant quarantine system in India Plant quarantine activities in India are carried out under the Destructive Insects and Pests Act DIP Act of , and the rules and regulations framed from time to time thereunder by the Govt. With a view to provide the farmers the best planting materials available in the world for maximising productivity per unit area and to encourage the private seed industry in India not only to meet the internal requirements but also to develop export potential for high quality planting materials, the Government of India anounced a 'New Policy on Seed Development' in SeptemberThis policy also states that absolutely no compromise shall be made with the requirements of plant quarantine procedures to prevent entry into the country of exotic pests, diseases and weeds detrimental to Indian agriculture.
Therefore, to meet the plant quarantine requirements in respect to the provisions of the new seed policy, the Govt. The main features of the existing plant quarantine regulations in India are as follows: 1. Hay, straw or any other materials of plant origin shall not be used as packing material. However, soil can be imported for research purposes under a special permit issued by the Plant Protection Adviser to the Govt.
NBPGR's responsibilities As the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR , New Delhi has been designated as the national nodal agency for exchange of germplasm material of agri-horticultural and agri-silvicultural crops for research purposes in the country, it has also been entrusted with the quarantine responsibilities in respect to germplasm of these crops. NBPGR has a separate Division of Plant Quarantine to meet the quarantine requirements in respect of the germplasm materials being exchanged through it.
The Division has trained scientific and technical staff representing the disciplines of entomology, nematology and plant pathology, well equipped laboratories, green houses and post-entry isolation growing field facilities to discharge its quarantine responsibilities efficiently.
Soil pH is a master variable in soils because it controls many chemical and biochemical processes operating within the soil. It is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil. The study of soil pH is very important in agriculture due to the fact that soil pH regulates plant nutrient availability by controlling the chemical forms of the different nutrients and also influences their chemical reactions. As a result, soil and crop productivities are linked to soil pH value. Though soil pH generally ranges from 1 to 14, the optimum range for most agricultural crops is between 5.
Complementary role of plant quarantine Plant quarantine measures aim at providing protection to the agriculture of a country or region against the.
Suffolk Rural is the location of our land-based industry facilities and programmes. The campus is located in the heart of the countryside and benefits from a range of specialist vocational workshops and outdoor facilities, as well as general college buildings. Come to a taster event! Transport Information Contact Suffolk Rural:This one day training course will teach you the key features of abrasive wheels. In this course you will learn the features of an abrasive wheel and how to protect yourself. The course will cover the regulations governing use of This qualification is for you if you are and looking to start a career within the agriculture and farming sector. Agriculture and food production is a thriving global industry
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